Docker Basic Commands

Bài viết này mình chia sẻ các command docker căn bản (Docker Basic commands).

1) docker 

Example:

docker [option] [command] [arguments]

2) docker version

Example:

docker version

3) docker info

Example

docker info

4) docker pull

Example:

docker pull ubuntu

5) docker build

Example:

docker build <options>  <directory path> OR <URL>
docker build .

6) docker run

Example:

docker run -i -t ubuntu /bin/bash

-i  – Để chạy một container.
-t  – Chạy và xuát stdout tty.
ubuntu–Docker image được dùng để tạo container.
bash (or /bin/bash)– Lệnh để chạy một Ubuntu container.

Note- Nếu muốn chạy ở chế độ máy host thêm tham số -d. Để thoát khỏi container dùng tổ hợp CTRL + P + Q.

Chạy Docker Container trong background.

docker run -i -t --name=Ubuntu-Linux -d ubuntu /bin/bash

7) docker commit 

Example:

docker commit [options] <container-id> [REPOSITORY[:TAG]]

Commit 1 container đang chạy

docker commit 023828e786e0  ubuntu-apache

8) docker ps

Examples:

docker ps

Liệt kê Docker Containers bao gồm các container đang dừng

docker ps -a

9) docker start 

docker start <container-id>

10) docker stop

docker stop <container-id>

11) docker logs

$ docker logs <Container ID>

12) docker rename

docker rename <Old_Name> <New_Name>

13) docker rm

docker rm <CONTAINER ID>

Xoá tất cả các container đã dừng

sudo docker rm -f $(sudo docker ps -a -q)

Xoá tất cả images ko gắn tag

sudo docker images | grep none | awk '{ print $3; }' | xargs sudo docker rmi

#1. Docker Image Commands

Docker Image được đóng gói sẵn theo ứng dụng để chạy một Docker container.

1) docker build – To build Docker Image from Dockerfile

Example:

docker build <options>  <directory path> OR <URL>
docker build .

Thêm tag cho một Docker Image

docker build -t vietcalls/nodejs:1.0

2. docker pull – To pull Docker Image from Docker Hub Registry

docker pull [OPTIONS] Image_Name[:TAG]

Examples:

docker pull ubuntu

Docker pull Image from Private Registry

Login  UserName and Password

docker login hub.docker.com --username=USERNAME

Pull the Docker Image

docker pull hub.docker.com/nodejs

Gán tag khi pull

docker pull "repoName"/"image_name"[:tag]

Pull docker image from private IP based repository

docker image pull 192.168.100.50:5000 /ubuntu:latest

3. docker tag – To add Tag to Docker Image

docker tag IMAGE ID image/TAG

Examples:

docker tag nodejsdocker vietcalls/nodejsdocker:v1.0

4. docker images – To list Docker Images

Docker command to list images

Examples

docker images
docker image ls
docker images list

To filter Docker Images list

 docker images --filter "<key>=<value>"

Dùng “–filter”:

  • dangling– Images are not used
  • label– List the Docker Images those you added a label
  • before– List the Docker Images which is created in specific time
  • since– Created in specific time with another image creation
  • reference – List Docker Images which has name or Tag
docker images -a

5. docker push – To push Docker Images to repository

docker push [OPTIONS] NAME[:TAG]

Examples:

docker tag nodejs my_docker_registry.com/nodejs:v1.0

To push a Docker Image to Private Registry

docker login hub.docker.com --username=USERNAME
docker tag ubuntu hub.docker.com/linux/ubuntu:latest

6. docker history – To show history of Docker Image

docker image history [OPTIONS] IMAGE

Examples:

docker history <image-id> --no-trunc

Get full history in tabular format:

docker history <image-id> --format "table{{.ID}}, {{.CreatedBy}}" --no-trunc

7. docker inspect – To show complete information in JSON format

docker inspect IMAGE_ID OR CONTAINER_ID

8. docker save – To save an existing Docker Image

docker save ubuntu_image:tag | gzip > ubuntu_image.tar.gz

9. docker import – Create Docker Image from Tarball

docker import [OPTIONS] file|URL|- [REPOSITORY[:TAG]]

Examples:

docker import ./ubuntu_image.tar.gz ubuntu:latest

Tạo “ubuntu:latest” images từ file nén

Import một Docker container

cat docker_container.tar.gz | docker import - my_image:tag

10. docker export – To export existing Docker container

docker export container_id | gzip > new_container.tar.gz

11. docker load – To load Docker Image from file or archives

docker load < ubuntu_image.tar.gz

12. docker rmi– To remove docker images

docker rmi IMAGE_ID

To remove all Docker Images

docker rmi $(docker images -q)

To remove All Docker Images forcefully

docker rmi -f $(docker images -q)

To clean docker images, builds , ..etc

docker system prune

We have covered Docker Basic commands for Docker Image.

#2. Docker Container Commands

1) docker start – To start a Docker container

docker start [OPTIONS] CONTAINER [CONTAINER]

Examples:

docker start container_id

Nếu muốn xuất ra màn hình

docker start -ai container_id

2) docker stop – To stop a running docker container

docker stop [-t|--time[=10]] CONTAINER [CONTAINER]

[-t|–time[=10]– wait before stopping the container

Examples:

docker stop container_id

To stop all the containers

docker stop 'docker ps -q'

To stop all Docker containers

docker stop $(docker ps -a -q)

3) docker restart – To restart docker container

docker restart container_id

4) docker pause – To pause a running container

docker pause container_id

Docker pause vs stop ?

Docker pause suspends all processes in the defined container .

Docker stop sends SIGTERM to the container’s main process to stop and stops the container.

5) docker unpause – To unpause a running container

Syntax:

docker unpause CONTAINER [CONTAINER…]

Example:

docker unpause CONTAINER_ID

6) docker run – Creates a docker container from docker image

docker run [OPTIONS] IMAGE [COMMAND] [ARG]

docker container run command is used to create a docker container from docker images. Below are the example of docker run container with commands

To run Docker container in foreground

docker run ubuntu

you will see output of ubuntu docker container on your terminal, To stop the container type “CTRL + C”.

To run Docker container in detached mode/in background OR you want to keep the docker container running when terminal exit , use option “-d

docker container run -d ubuntu

To run Docker container under specific name

Syntax:

docker container run --name [CONTAINER_NAME] [DOCKER_IMAGE]

Example:

docker run -i -t --name=Ubuntu-Linux -d ubuntu

To run Docker container in interactive mode/ you can enter commands inside docker container while it is runnning

docker run -i -t --name=Ubuntu-Linux -d ubuntu /bin/bash

Expose Docker Container ports and access Apache outside

docker run -p 81:80 -itd 4e5021d210f6

-p – Exposes 80 ra ngoài

Vào trình duyệt apache với port 81

http://localhost_ip:81/

7) docker ps – To list Docker containers

docker ps
docker ps -a

8) docker exec – To Access the shell of Docker Container

docker exec -i -t 023828e786e0 /bin/bash
docker exec -i -t Ubuntu-Linux /bin/bash

Để  update the System Packages từ Docker Container

docker exec 023828e786e0 apt-get update

Cài Apache2 từ docker container

docker exec 023828e786e0 apt-get install apache2 -y

Kiểm tra apache2 service status inside Docker Container

docker exec 023828e786e0 service apache2 status

Start Apache2 service inside Docker Container

docker exec 023828e786e0 service apache2 start

9) docker logs – To view logs of Docker container

To view Logs for a Docker Container

docker logs <Containe ID>

10) docker rename – To rename Docker container

To rename Docker Container

docker rename <Old_Name> <New_Name>

11) docker rm – To remove Docker container

To remove the Docker Container, stop it first and then remove it

docker rm <CONTAINER ID>

Run below command to remove all stopped containers

sudo docker rm -f $(sudo docker ps -a -q)

To remove untagged docker images

sudo docker images | grep none | awk '{ print $3; }' | xargs sudo docker rmi

12) docker inspect – Docker container info command

Syntax:

docker inspect [OPTIONS] NAME|ID [NAME|ID...]

OR

docker container inspect [OPTIONS] CONTAINER [CONTAINER...]

Example:

docker inspect 023828e786e0

To get Docker container IP Address

docker inspect --format='{{range .NetworkSettings.Networks}}{{.IPAddress}}{{end}}' $DOCKER_CONTAINER_NAME

To get list of all ports binds to Docker container

docker inspect --format='{{range $p, $conf := .NetworkSettings.Ports}} {{$p}} -> {{(index $conf 0).HostPort}} {{end}}' $DOCKER_INSTANCE_NAME

12) docker attach – Attach Terminal to Running container

Docker attach command is used to attach your terminal to running container to control Input/Output/Error operations.

Syntax:

docker attach [OPTIONS] CONTAINER_ID / CONTAINER_NAME

Example:

docker attach  nodejs

12) docker kill – To stop and remove Docker containers

Syntax:

docker kill [OPTIONS] CONTAINER [CONTAINER…]

Example:

To stop all docker containers

docker kill $(docker ps -q)

To remove all docker containers

docker rm $(docker ps -a -q)

To remove all docker containers forcefully

docker rm -f $(docker ps -a -q)

13) docker cp – To copy files or folders between a container and from local filesystem.

Syntax:

docker cp [OPTIONS] CONTAINER:SRC_PATH DEST_PATH|-
docker cp [OPTIONS] SRC_PATH|- CONTAINER:DEST_PATH

Examples:

copy directory from Docker host to container

sudo docker cp ./directory_path 023828e786e0:/home/ubuntu

copy directory from docker container to host

sudo docker cp 023828e786e0:/etc/apache2/sites-enabled .

To copy files from Docker container to host

sudo docker cp 023828e786e0:/etc/apache2 .

To copy files from Host to Docker container

Syntax:

docker cp SOURCE_HOST_PATH  CONTAINER:DESTINATION_PATH

Example:

sudo docker cp ./test.vietcalls.com.conf 023828e786e0:/etc/apache2/sites-enabled

#3. Docker Compose Commands

1) docker-compose build – To build docker compose file

Example:

docker-compose build

2) docker-compose up – To run docker compose file

docker-compose up

To run docker compose in background

docker-compose up -d

To re-run containers which has stopped in states

docker-compose up --no-recreate

3) docker-compose ls – To list docker images declared inside docker compose file

docker-compose ps

4) docker-compose start – To start containers which are already created using docker compose file

docker-compose start

docker-compose up – It creates new docker containers which are defined docker-compose file.

docker-compose start– used to only to restart docker containers which are already created using docker-compose file, never created new containers.

5) docker-compose run – To run one one of application inside docker-compose.yml

docker-compose run nodejs

6) docker-compose rm – To remove docker containers from docker compose

docker-compose rm -f

To auto remove docker containers with docker-compose.yml

docker-compose up && docker-compose rm -fsv

To stop docker containers and then remove

docker-compose stop && docker-compose rm -f

To stop a specific docker container from docker compose

docker-compose stop nodejs

To remove docker containers data inside docker compose

docker-compose rm -f nodejs

To remove volume which is attached to docker container

docker-compose rm -v

7) docker-compose ps – To check docker container status from docker compose

docker-compose ps

We have covered docker basic commands for Docker Compose.

#4. Docker Volume Commands

1) docker volume create – To create docker volume

docker volume create <volume_name>

2) docker volume inspect – To inspect docker volume

docker volume create <volume_name>

3) docker volume rm – To remove docker volume

First remove the docker container

docker rm –f $(docker ps -aq)

then remove the docker volume

docker volume rm <volume_name>

To delete all docker volumes at once

docker volume prune

We have covered Docker Basic Commands for Docker Volume.

#5. Docker Networking Commands

1) docker network create – To create docker network

docker network create --driver=bridge --subnet=192.168.100.0/24 br0

2) docker network ls – To list docker networls

docker network ls

3) docker network inspect – To view network configuration details

docker network inspect bridge

We have covered Docker Basic Commands for Docker Networking.

#6. Docker Logs and Monitoring Commands

1) docker ps -a – To show running and stopped containers

docker ps -a

2) docker logs – To show Docker container logs

docker logs

3) docker events – To get all events of docker container

docker events

4) docker top – To show running process in docker container

docker top

5) docker stats – To check cpu, memory and network I/O usage

docker stats <container_id>

6) docker port – To show docker containers public ports

docker port <container_id>

We have covered Docker Basic Commands for Docker Logs and Monitoring.

#7. Docker Prune Commands

Dùng Docker prune chúng ta xoá docker không dùng hoặc treo bao gồm containers, Images , volumes and networks

Làm sạch hệ thống với docker containers

docker system prune

Làm sạch bao gồm các container đã dừng

docker system prune -a

To remove Dangling Docker images

docker image prune
docker image prune -a

To remove all unused docker containers

docker container prune

To remove all unused docker volumes

docker volume prune

To remove all unused docker networks

docker network prune

#8. Docker Hub Commands

To search docker image

docker search ubuntu

To pull image from docker hub

docker pull ubuntu

Pushing Docker Image to Docker Hub Repository

Login to https://hub.docker.com  with ID and password using command line

docker login
Login with your Docker ID to push and pull images from Docker Hub. If you don't have a Docker ID, head over to https://hub.docker.com to create one.
Username: vietcalls
Password:
Login Succeeded

Now push Docker Image to Docker Hub Repository

docker push nodejsdocker

Error: denied: requested access to the resource is denied:docker

Nếu báo lỗi ta thêm tag

docker tag nodejsdocker vietcalls/nodejsdocker

Push lại Docker Image

docker push vietcalls/nodejsdocker

To logout from Docker Hub Registry

docker logout

Lời kết

Qua bài viết mình chía sẻ các bạn một số command cơ bản strong docker và docker-compose. Chúc các bạn thành công.!

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